Tonga ([ˈtoŋa]; Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 177 islands of which 52 islands are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 square kilometres (290sqmi) scattered over 700,000 square kilometres (270,000sqmi) of the southern Pacific Ocean. It has a population 103,000 people of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu.
Tonga became known as the Friendly Islands because of the congenial reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit in 1773. He arrived at the time of the ʻinasi festival, the yearly donation of the First Fruits to the Tuʻi Tonga (the islands' paramount chief) and so received an invitation to the festivities. According to the writer William Mariner, the chiefs wanted to kill Cook during the gathering but could not agree on a plan.
Tonga's population is 358, making it the seventh most populous village in Tuvalu. It is the main village of the island of Nanumanga, comprising 52% of the population of the island. The only other village is on the island Tokelau.